The link between blood sugar balance and low AMH and High FSH

Feb 12, 2024

The link between blood sugar balance and low AMH and High FSH

Regulating blood sugar is an increasingly important topic and with good reason. If you are trying to get pregnant, it is key to understand how blood sugar balance affects fertility. Hormone regulation is intimately connected to blood sugar regulation. Imbalances in blood sugar levels can have far-reaching consequences, affecting various aspects of reproductive health.

A prevalent connection among low AMH, high FSH, diminished ovarian reserve, and premature ovarian insufficiency is linked to fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Given this, it is important to acknowledge and manage blood sugar levels for individuals embarking on the journey of conception.


Understanding Blood Sugar:


Let's start with the basics to comprehend the link between blood sugar and fertility. When you consume food, particularly carbohydrates, your body breaks them down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream and serves as a primary energy source for the body. However, maintaining a balance in blood sugar levels is crucial for overall health and, importantly, fertility.


When blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes insulin to facilitate glucose absorption by cells, providing them with energy. Conversely, when blood sugar is low, the pancreas releases glucagon, signaling the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, maintaining a stable blood sugar level. Consistently high blood sugar levels can lead to insulin resistance, a condition where cells no longer respond effectively to insulin.


This resistance can result in various health complications, including hormonal imbalances and fertility issues. For women, insulin resistance is associated with issues related to ovulation, embryo attachment, and pregnancy loss (1,2). For men, insulin resistance is linked to lower testosterone levels in men and increased risk of erectile dysfunction (3,4,5).


Symptoms of High Blood Sugar (6):

  • Irritability
  • Poor concentration 
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Thirst 


Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar (7):

  • Fatigue
  • Confusion 
  • Hunger 
  • Sweating 
  • Tremor 
  • Difficulties speaking or moving 


Testing and Monitoring Blood Sugar (8):

  • Fasting blood sugar
    • This is the sugar present in the bloodstream which acts as the primary energy source for the body's cells. It’s typical range of function fluctuates between 75 to 86 mg/dL.
  • Hemoglobin A1C 
    • A1C reflects the average fasting blood sugar over the past three months, with the ideal level being 4.5 - 5.5%.
  • Insulin
    • Insulin, a hormone facilitating glucose uptake by cells, typically falls within the functional range of 1-5 µIU/mL. 


Diet & Lifestyle Changes to Support Blood Sugar Regulation:


Nutritional Strategies:


  • Focus on a diet rich in protein, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fats, non-starchy carbohydrates low on the glycemic index, and minerals like potassium and magnesium (9,10,11,12).


    • Here are some suggestions for foods to keep on hand:
      • For proteins, consider edamame, tuna, chicken, and turkey.


      • To get monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, try olive oil, avocado, nuts, seeds, and salmon.


      • For non-starchy carbohydrates, choose leafy greens, berries, underripe bananas, cauliflower, carrots, brussels sprouts, brown rice, beans, lentils, quinoa, and buckwheat.


      • Boost your potassium and magnesium intake by incorporating dark leafy greens, legumes, avocado, chicken, beef, and salmon into your diet.


  • Add a capful of apple cider vinegar to your water. Sip between meals and snacks for a refreshing twist that promotes blood sugar balance (13).


  • Incorporate ingredients like cinnamon, chamomile tea, vinegars, and nutritional yeast into your daily diet (14,15,16).


  • Bid farewell to high-sugar foods. Avoid artificial sweeteners, soda, juice, sweets, baked goods, and saturated fats. Your blood sugar levels, and overall health will thank you (10).


  • Focus on consuming most of your calorie intake in the first half of the day, starting with savory breakfast (10,17).


  • Slow down and savor every bite. Mindful eating isn't just a trend; it's a punch on your ticket to balanced blood sugar levels (10).


Lifestyle Strategies:


  • Walk after meals (18).


  • Get adequate sleep for 8-10 hours a night (19).


  • Reduce stress by incorporating practices like meditation and breathwork (20).


  • Exercise regularly, incorporating both strength and cardio training (21).


  • Take breaks from sitting for long periods of time by getting up and walking around or moving briefly (22). 


Achieving balanced blood sugar and improving insulin resistance requires a comprehensive approach encompassing dietary and lifestyle strategies. For individuals with specific conditions like PCOS or thyroid issues, personalized guidance is invaluable. While this guide provides a solid foundation, balancing blood sugar for healthy hormones is unique for each individual. For additional diet and lifestyle recommendations, explore our free guide available here. And to delve deeper into further details and gain more actionable insights tune into episode 409 of the Get Pregnant Naturally podcast.




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  1. Craig, L. B., Ke, R. W., & Kutteh, W. H. (2002). Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertility and sterility, 78(3), 487–490.


  1. Nelly Pitteloud, Megan Hardin, Andrew A. Dwyer, Elena Valassi, Maria Yialamas, Dariush Elahi, Frances J. Hayes, Increasing Insulin Resistance Is Associated with a Decrease in Leydig Cell Testosterone Secretion in Men, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 90, Issue 5, 1 May 2005, Pages 2636–2641,
  2. Anwar, Z., Sinha, V., Mitra, S., Mishra, A. K., Ansari, M. H., Bharti, A., Kumar, V., & Nigam, A. K. (2017). Erectile Dysfunction: An Underestimated Presentation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 39(5), 600–604.
  3. Yao, F., Liu, L., Zhang, Y. et al. Erectile dysfunction may be the first clinical sign of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in young men. Clin Res Cardiol 102, 645–651 (2013).
  4. Warren, R. E., Deary, I. J., & Frier, B. M. (2003). The symptoms of hyperglycaemia in people with insulin-treated diabetes: classification using principal components analysis. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 19(5), 408–414.


  1. Adukauskiene, D., & Blauzdyte, J. (2006). Hipoglikemijos priezastys, diagnostika ir gydymas [Causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoglycemia]. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 42(10), 860–867. 


  1. Mathew TK, Zubair M, Tadi P. Blood Glucose Monitoring. [Updated 2023 Apr 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-. Available from: 


  1. Tettamanzi, F., Bagnardi, V., Louca, P., Nogal, A., Monti, G. S., Mambrini, S. P., Lucchetti, E., Maestrini, S., Mazza, S., Rodriguez-Mateos, A., Scacchi, M., Valdes, A. M., Invitti, C., & Menni, C. (2021). A High Protein Diet Is More Effective in Improving Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Variability Compared to a Mediterranean Diet-A Cross-Over Controlled Inpatient Dietary Study. Nutrients, 13(12), 4380.


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  1. Chavarro, J. E., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Rosner, B. A., & Willett, W. C. (2009). A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility. European journal of clinical nutrition, 63(1), 78–86.


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  1. Shishehbor, F., Mansoori, A., & Shirani, F. (2017). Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 127, 1–9.


  1. Zarezadeh, M., Musazadeh, V., Foroumandi, E., Keramati, M., Ostadrahimi, A., & Mekary, R. A. (2023). The effect of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes or with polycystic ovary syndrome: an umbrella meta-analysis on interventional meta-analyses. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome, 15(1), 127.
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  1. Zurbau, A., Noronha, J. C., Khan, T. A., Sievenpiper, J. L., & Wolever, T. M. S. (2021). The effect of oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of clinical nutrition, 75(11), 1540–1554.


  1. Chang, C. R., Francois, M. E., & Little, J. P. (2019). Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variability. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 109(5), 1302–1309.


  1. Engeroff, T., Groneberg, D. A., & Wilke, J. (2023). After Dinner Rest a While, After Supper Walk a Mile? A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis on the Acute Postprandial Glycemic Response to Exercise Before and After Meal Ingestion in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 53(4), 849–869.


  1. Sondrup, N., Termannsen, A. D., Eriksen, J. N., Hjorth, M. F., Færch, K., Klingenberg, L., & Quist, J. S. (2022). Effects of sleep manipulation on markers of insulin sensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sleep medicine reviews, 62, 101594.


  1. Yadav, A., Kaushik, R. M., & Kaushik, R. (2021). Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing and Systematic Relaxation on Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. International journal of yoga therapy, 31(1), Article_13.


  1. Poehlman, E. T., Dvorak, R. V., DeNino, W. F., Brochu, M., & Ades, P. A. (2000). Effects of resistance training and endurance training on insulin sensitivity in nonobese, young women: a controlled randomized trial. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 85(7), 2463–2468.


  1. Duran, A. T., Friel, C. P., Serafini, M. A., Ensari, I., Cheung, Y. K., & Diaz, K. M. (2023). Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting to Improve Cardiometabolic Risk: Dose-Response Analysis of a Randomized Crossover Trial. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 55(5), 847–855.